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Anthrax bioterrorism

What Is Anthrax Bioterrorism Live Scienc

  1. Anthrax and bioterrorism . Anthrax can be created easily in a lab, and is incredibly durable: Spores of anthrax bacteria can lie dormant for years before entering a living host, where they.
  2. Volume 8, Number 10—October 2002 THEME ISSUE Bioterrorism-related Anthrax Bioterrorism-related Anthrax Anthrax Bioterrorism: Lessons Learned and Future Directions On This Page Bioterrorism-related Anthrax. Cite This Article. Figures Figure 1. Figure 2. Downloads Article . RIS.
  3. If anthrax spores were released into the air, people could breathe them in and get sick with anthrax. Inhalation anthrax is the most serious form and can kill quickly if not treated immediately. If the attack were not detected by one of the monitoring systems in place in the United States, it might go unnoticed until doctors begin to see unusual patterns of illness among sick people showing up.
  4. ence in 2001 during the bioterrorism attack in the United States. Anthrax is caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis).The name anthrax comes from the Greek word for coal and refers to the black skin lesions it produces
  5. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web site provides updated information regarding treatment, prophylaxis, and other guidelines for Bacillus anthracis and other bioterrorism threats
  6. Anthrax is currently considered one of the most serious bioterrorism threats. In the second half of the 20th Century, several countries used B. anthracis in their biological weapons (BW) programs, and autonomous groups have also demonstrated the intent to use the bacterium in acts of terrorism

Anthrax Bioterrorism: Lessons Learned and Future

The Threat Anthrax CD

Suggested citation: Hughes JM and Gerberding JL. Anthrax Bioterrorism: Lessons Learned and Future Directions. Emerg Infect Dis. [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Oct [date cited] In October 2001, the first inhalational anthrax case in the United States since 1976 was identified in a media company worker in Florida. A national investigation was initiated to identify additional cases and determine possible exposures to Bacillus anthracis. Surveillance was enhanced through health-care facilities, laboratories, and other means to identify cases, which were defined as. As a bioterrorism agent, it's ideal. In 2001, letters containing concentrated anthrax were sent to news media and the offices of then-Sens. Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy, resulting in 22 infections and five deaths. This is a form of inhalation anthrax, in which spores are cultivated, dried and prepared Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot. Bioterrorism may be favored because biological agents are relatively easy and inexpensive to obtain, can be easily disseminated, and can cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual physical damage Anthrax vaccine alone is not effective for post-exposure prevention of anthrax; vaccination is accompanied by 60 days of antibiotic therapy. In addition to military use, anthrax vaccine is recommended for pre-exposure use in those persons whose work involves repeated exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores

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1. J Fam Pract. 2003 Jan;52(1 Suppl):S56-61. Vaccines and bioterrorism: smallpox and anthrax. Kimmel SR(1), Mahoney MC, Zimmerman RK. Author information: (1)Department of Family Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614, USA. skimmel@mco.edu Because of the success of vaccination and the ring strategy in eradicating smallpox from the world, smallpox vaccine has not been recommended. Anthrax spores are formed by anthrax bacteria that occur naturally in soil in most parts of the world. The spores can remain dormant for years until they find their way into a host. Common hosts for anthrax include wild or domestic livestock, such as sheep, cattle, horses and goats Finally, although probably provoking a severe health and societal crisis, bioterrorism is a variation of the natural emergence of infectious diseases. The medical counter-measures against a bioterrorist occurrence or a natural emergence are frequently overlapping, as exemplified by the use of polyclonal serum during an outbreak of anthrax in drug users, or the Ebola vaccine in the outbreaks in. Anthrax was deliberately spread through the postal system by sending letters with powder containing anthrax. This caused 22 cases of anthrax infection. How dangerous is anthrax? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies agents with recognized bioterrorism potential into three priority areas (A, B and C)

Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and has been adapted for use in bioterrorism. It is a large Gram-positive aerobic, rod shaped, bacillus bacterium (Figure 1). It ranges in size from 1-1.5 x 3-10 µm and is the only obligate pathogen within the genus bacillus. 1 Anthrax is an acute disease, that appears suddenly and progresses rapidly, affecting humans and animals Anthrax in Bioterrorism Essay 2035 Words | 9 Pages. Anthrax in Bioterrorism As America rises shakily to its feet after September 11th, a man from American Media Inc. breathes in a funny powder from a letter in his office. Five days later he ís in the hospital, an apparent severe case of the flu. Two days later, he dies Bioterrorism is a scary word. So are words like anthrax or ricin (RY-SEEN) - two deadly substances that made headlines and had Americans worried about large-.. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) Plague (Yersinia pestis) Smallpox (variola major) Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Viral hemorrhagic fevers, including Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg) Arenaviruses (Lassa, Machupo) Category B Definition. Second highest priority agents include those that. are moderately easy to. The possibility of a terrorist attack is a scary thought and a very real danger. Terrorists could attack the American public in many different ways, includin..

In Focus - Anthrax Bioterrorism: The Role of The Pharmacis

  1. Top Bioterrorism Related Articles. Anthrax. Anthrax is a deadly infectious disease that may be transmitted to humans by infected animals or by biological warfare. There are three types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax include a swollen glands, muscle ache, headache,.
  2. In the Washington, D.C., anthrax bioterrorism attack of 2001, for example, at the time that the initial clinical diagnoses of IA were made for patients 3 and 4 (19 and 20 October 2001, respectively), epidemiological investigations to that point had limited the area of known exposure to people who had been on the fifth and sixth floors of the.
  3. No rational person can deny the destructive potential of a nuclear bomb as a weapon of mass destruction (WMD). The perception of anthrax as a WMD, however, is yet unformed in our society and its institutions. Opinions on anthrax WMD have ranged from dire to dismissive (1, 2), but a scientifically rigorous analysis of their destructive potential has been lacking

General Bioterrorism Resources. Biodefense and Bioterrorism (from MedlinePlus) Biological Warfare Website (from National Library of Medicine) Belgian Biosafety Server; Anthrax Resources. Acceptable Biological Specimens for Testing for Anthrax (from CDC) Anthrax (from CIDRAP The intentional release of only 1 kg of Bacillus anthracis spores could lead to the deaths of over 100 000 people in a city of 10 million.1 Although the likelihood of such an event occurring is difficult to estimate, the devastation that would follow demands that we are prepared. In this issue of The Lancet, Demetrios Kyriacou and co-workers identify clinical indicators that would help doctors.

eurosurveillance.org is the online home of Eurosurveillance, Europe's journal on infectious disease surveillance, epidemiology, prevention and control Anthrax and Bioterrorism 1269 Words | 6 Pages. According to Willey, Sherwood, and Woolverton, anthrax is a highly infectious animal disease, caused by the bacterium B. antrhacis, that can be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, such as cattle, goats, sheep, etc., or their products, especially hides, and its spores can remain viable in soil and animal products for decades Background. A bioterrorism attack with an agent such as anthrax will require rapid deployment of medical and pharmaceutical supplies to exposed individuals. How should such a logistical system be o.. -anthrax has been a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism. In 1993, the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, sprayed aerosols containing B. anthracis several times in attempted terrorist attacks in Tokyo

Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax

Securing America: Anthrax Attack Assessment | Securing America

This is the second of two articles on bioterrorism and the companies involved in the field. The first article was on Smallpox. This one is on Anthrax. Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive. Popularly viewed as a frightening airborne agent of bioterrorism, the bacteria that causes anthrax infections naturally occurs in the soil on every continent and some islands. The maps, published today in Nature Microbiology , are the result of 15 years of data collection covering 70 countries compiled by Emerging Pathogens Institute associate research professor Jason Blackburn and his colleagues

Introduction. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the US has been on high alert. 1-3 The anthrax exposures that followed shortly thereafter amplified the public cognizance that biological weapons remain a potential threat associated with terrorism. 1,3 Bioterrorism, the use of biological agents as a method of terrorism, may include agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, viral. Anthrax and Bioterrorism What is anthrax? Anthrax is a serious disease caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis, which can be found naturally in certain types of soil. Spores of the anthrax bacterium may remain in nature for many years. Anthrax most commonly occurs in warm-blooded animals but also can occur in people. How do you get it

When Anthrax-Laced Letters Terrorized the Nation - HISTOR

Anthrax: Where Margins are Merging between Emerging Threats and Bioterrorism. Banerjee D(1), Chakraborty B(2), Chakraborty B(3). Author information: (1)Department of Microbiology, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India Bioterrorism Impact of Anthrax . Anthrax is one of the most well-known biological warfare agents worldwide. It is used as a respiratory bio-agent, particularly using the spores of anthrax to disseminate. The US and Soviet Union both had massive stockpiles of B. anthracis prior to the Biological Weapons Convention in 1972 When an anthrax attack just after Sept. 11 killed five people and infected 18 more, U.S. residents were sent into a bioterrorism panic. Bioterrorism has actually been around for many centuries, but we keep finding new ways to combat it

CDC Bioterrorism Agents Category A ¾ Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ¾ Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) ¾ Plague (Yersinia pestis) ¾ Smallpox (variola major) ¾ Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) ¾ Viral hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Category B ¾ Brucellosis (Brucella species) ¾ Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringen Bioterrorism 1. In the name of Allah the most merciful and the most beneficent 2. Course Title: Diversity of Monera Course The anthrax was in a powder form and it was delivered by the mail.Anthrax is one of the few biological agents that federal employees have been vaccinated for. The strain used in the. Changes to anthrax vaccine advice. Aid for Samoan measles. Flu vaccine in daycare. Foodborne Salmonella in Europe. Nov 14, 2019. All Bioterrorism News . Resources & Literature. Recent Literature. GAO. Additional efforts would enhance likelihood of effective implementation

Start studying 33: Bioterrorism - Anthrax & Smallpox. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools B. anthracis has been weaponized and these agents have also been used in bioterrorism. Weaponized anthrax spores have been altered to form aerosols readily and are often inhaled; however, they can also cause skin lesions or gastrointestinal anthrax. Bacillus cereus carrying anthrax-like plasmid Anthrax does not typically occur in New York City. In the fall of 2001, an outbreak of cutaneous and inhalation anthrax in New York City, New Jersey, the Washington, D.C. area and Florida resulted from a still unsolved act of bioterrorism involving letters intentionally contaminated with anthrax spores Soon after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, letters laced with anthrax began appearing in the U.S. mail. Five Americans were killed and 17 were sickened in what became the worst biological attacks. Anthrax Bioterrorism Share this page A biological attack, or bioterrorism, is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs that can sicken or kill people, livestock, or crops. Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack

Bioterrorism Agents: Anthrax – Survival Stronghold

Bioterrorism - Internetmedici

bioterrorism scenario to test and refine Bioterrorism Readiness Plans at each individual facility. Section I: General Categorical Recommendations for Any Suspected Bioterrorism Event A. Reporting Requirements and Contact Information Healthcare facilities may be the initial site of recognition and response to bioterrorism events Anthrax Bioterrorism: Lessons Learned and Future Directions @article{Hughes2002AnthraxBL, title={Anthrax Bioterrorism: Lessons Learned and Future Directions}, author={James M. Hughes and Julie Louise Gerberding}, journal={Emerging Infectious Diseases}, year={2002}, volume={8}, pages={1013 - 1014} } James M. Anthrax is a disease caused by bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. The form of the disease that health authorities are concerned that a bioterrorist attack might produce is inhalational anthrax. of dollars to each state to assist in the development of resources to help communities cope with disasters like bioterrorism

Anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats. Anthrax may be used as a biological weapon or for bioterrorism. Symptoms. Symptoms of anthrax differ depending on the type of anthrax. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax start 1 to 7 days after exposure Anthrax is the name of a potentially deadly infection caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis.The bacteria are common in soil, where they typically exist as dormant spores that can survive as long as 48 years. Under the microscope, the living bacteria are large rods.Being exposed to the bacteria is not the same as being infected by it

2001 anthrax attacks - Wikipedi

Anthrax And Bioterrorism Reference Summary Anthrax is a very rare infec-tious disease that can spread from animals to hu-mans. The recent use of an-thrax by terrorists and the possibility of spreading an-thrax for the purpose of war-fare has increased people's awareness of this disease Bioterrorism and Biocrimes : The Illicit Use of Biological Agents Since 1900 By W. Seth Carus, Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, Washington, D.C. Combating the threat of biowarfare and bioterrorism By Ronald M. Atla Bioterrorism is the use of any biological organism to intentionally hurt people or create fear. In order to make anthrax into a bioterrorism agent that could harm someone, it would have to be processed in a very special way. Anthrax was used to contaminate letters sent in the mail in 2001. How can I protect myself from anthrax in the mail Lists products approved for treatment of anthrax. The .gov means it's official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil

Accordingly, bioterrorism poses distinctive challenges for preparedness, protection, and response. The use of a pathogen for hostile purposes became a consuming concern to the American people soon after 9/11. About a half-dozen letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to journalists and politicians beginning one week after the jetliner. Anthrax is an infection caused by bacteria. Anthrax most commonly occurs in cattle and sheep. It is rare in humans. It is usually seen only in people who have contact with infected animals or who work with animal products such as wool, or hides. Anthrax can be a form of bioterrorism if someone deliberately spreads the bacteria in public places Note: ADHS is open Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., except state holidays. Any documents contained on this Web site that are translations from original text written in English are unofficial and not binding on this state or a political subdivision of this state On November 20, 2001, the 11th known case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax since October 4 was identified in a 94-year-old resident of Oxford, Connecticut, a rural community of <10,000. Anthrax bacteria form spores that can survive in the environment for long periods of time. Humans seldom get anthrax but when they do it is through handling infected animals or other materials containing anthrax spores, eating infected meat or breathing in spores. Anthrax cannot be spread from person to person. Types of anthrax and the symptom

Because anthrax is a naturally occurring infectious disease, there is much experience with recognizing and treating naturally acquired inhalational and cutaneous anthrax. However, in the 2001-2002 US experience, weapons-grade anthrax was used as a weapon of bioterrorism for the first time What is Bioterrorism? A biological attack, or bioterrorism (BT), is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs that can sicken or kill people. Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack. Anthrax is one of the most likely agents to be used because For more than twenty years experts in bioterrorism have sent up the warning signals that the United States of America is a prime target for the sinister plans of bioterrorists. In 2001, powdered anthrax spores were deliberately put into letters that were mailed through the U.S. postal system. Twenty-two people, including 12 mail handlers, go The Bioterrorism threat has risen to a new level. The Federal Government, in partnership with state and local law enforcement agencies, state and local responders have been required to utilize their assets to coordinate a response to an actual release of anthrax

Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or to tissue from infected animals or when anthrax spores are used as a bioterrorist weapon Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the US has been on high alert. 1-3 The anthrax exposures that followed shortly thereafter amplified the public cognizance that biological weapons remain a potential threat associated with terrorism. 1,3 Bioterrorism, the use of biological agents as a method of terrorism, may include agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, or non-replicating agents such as toxins produced by living organisms. 1 A likely scenario. Anthrax is a potential bioterrorism agent. Although production of material readily dispersible in an aerosolised form is technically difficult, lower grade material could also cause large numbers of infections if dispersed in sufficient quantities. In 2001, 22 cases of anthrax. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium Download Citation | Anthrax and bioterrorism | Bioterrorism is a criminal practice whose objectives are to disestablish society and to cause panic by an unnoticed, silent and incontrollable.

Anthrax and Bioterrorism Essay 1263 Words | 6 Pages. According to Willey, Sherwood, and Woolverton, anthrax is a highly infectious animal disease, caused by the bacterium B. antrhacis, that can be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, such as cattle, goats, sheep, etc., or their products, especially hides, and its spores can remain viable in soil and animal products. Bioterrorism Preparedness — Anthrax D. Bruce Lawhorn Professor and Extension Swine Veterinarian, Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System. meat. The patient develops fever, vomiting, bloody diarrhea and malaise. Mortality can be close to 50 percent if untreated Anthrax is currently considered one of the most serious bioterrorism threats. Beginning in the second half of the 20th Century, B. anthracis was developed by several countries as part of their biological weapons (BW) programs. Autonomous groups have also demonstrated intent to use B. anthracis in acts of terrorism anthrax are rare; however, anthrax has been used as a weapon by bioterrorists, and weaponized anthrax can form aerosols readily. An uncommon form of anthrax, caused by injecting B. anthracis spores, has been reported recently in Europe, where it has been associated with contaminated heroin. Etiolog

Anthrax Attack! A Case on Bioterrorism by Kari A. Mergenhagen University at Buffalo, State University of New York The Chief Director for Bioterrorism Security in the United States had called an urgent meeting of his key personnel. Today the CIA intercepted and translated a tape-recording of a known terrorist group Seven days after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 attacks, anonymous letters laced with deadly anthrax spores began arriving at media companies and congressional offices. Here, a chronology. The October, 2002 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases(Vol. 8, No. 10) was devoted to bioterrorism-related anthrax and summarized the work of CDC during the past year. The Disease Detective site presents clinical, epidemiologic, and media information on the 23 cases (19 confirmed, 4 suspect), including the one accidental laboratory case, which comprised the American anthrax outbreak of 2001

The Persistence of Time 30th Anniversary Deluxe Edition can be pre-ordered HERE - https://anthrax.com/shop EPISODE 4 - Married With Children The Persistence of Time. Anthrax is a bacteria in the air that can be consumed by either entering cuts or scrapes, handling meat or wool of an animal who had been infected by the disease anthrax, inhaling it, or by eating the meat of an infected animal The CDC calls Anthrax one of the biological agents most likely to be used in a bioterrorist attack. Unlike some other bioweapons, Anthrax is not contagious, and will not spread person-to-person like the flu. However, in weaponized spore form, it can be dispersed quickly in the air The History of Bioterrorism: Anthrax. Report. Browse more videos. Playing next. 0:24. DOWNLOAD FREE Ebooks The Anthrax Letters A Bioterrorism Expert Investigates the Attack That Shocked America Full EBook. Anthrax transmission occurs in one of two ways: from animals, or as a result of bioterrorism. Anthrax transmission from animals may occur when a person handles products from an infected animal, or breathes in anthrax spores from infected animal products, such as wool

Suspected cutaneous anthrax lesion from a patient in the

Besides anthrax, what are other potential diseases of bioterrorism? A number of different bacteria, viruses, and toxins could be used as weapons of bioterrorism An examination of the public health response to the anthrax incidents provides an important opportunity to apply lessons learned from that experience to enhance the nation's preparedness for bioterrorism. Because of its interest in bioterrorism preparedness, Congress asked GAO to review the public health response to the anthrax incidents Agroterrorism - Anthrax - Bioterrorism - News & Resources Emerging Infectious Diseases - Trends and Issues Emerging Infectious Diseases provides readers with core information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention, and treatment of specific EIDs Bioterrorism anthrax guidebook / by Daniel Farb Farb, Daniel (författare) UniversityOfHealthCare ISBN 1-59491-265-3 (pbk) Los Angeles, CA : UniversityOfHealthCare, 2005 Engelska 60, People were infected with anthrax during the 2001 bioterrorism attacks by inhaling thousands of airborne spores or by touching a powder form that was contained in letters delivered by the U.S. Postal Service. Inhalation anthrax occurs when the tiny spores are breathed in and settle in the lung,.

FDA approves Anthrasil for treatment of inhalational anthrax; Biothrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) (CBER) FDA approves Biothrax vaccine for use after known or suspected anthrax exposure;.. Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a germ that lives in soil. Many people know about it from the 2001 bioterror attacks. In the attacks, someone purposely spread anthrax through the U.S. mail. This killed five people and made 22 sick. Anthrax is rare. It affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people

Facial Cutaneous Anthrax, Prompt Recogition Required forBiological agent - WikipediaPoll finds public a bit wary about taking anthrax pillsBioweaponsCDC Cracks Down on Labs After Anthrax, Bird Flu ScaresClinical Presentation of Inhalational Anthrax FollowingDeath Due to Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax

An example of bioterrorism is provided by the anthrax outbreak which occurred during September-November 2001 in the United States. Anthrax spores intentionally spread in the mail distribution system caused five deaths and a total of 22 infections. The Centers for Disease Control. Bioterrorism is primarily a federal, not a state, issue, and actions undertaken to prevent and respond to bioterrorism should be a federal priority. 30 Laws that provide funding for training in. Anthrax is not contagious -- that means it does not pass from one person to another. So there is no reason for people to take antibiotics out of fear of contracting the disease Figure 1: Algorithm for management of 'white powder incidents' or other suspected anthrax bioterrorism exposures . YES . NO . Action on site (ideally, by SAPS or CBU): Secure/isolate immediate environment Remove outer clothes and double-bag and label them Decontaminate skin with soap and water Refer contacts to health care facilit

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